REUTERS | Carlos Barria

Those interested in the tests for employment status continue to be rewarded by the stream of gig economy cases working their way upwards from the Employment Tribunal (ET), the Employment Appeal Tribunal (EAT) and beyond.

In parallel, the Tax Chamber of the First-tier Tribunal (FTT) has been grappling with the issue of employment status as it arises in a legislative context colloquially known as IR35. These provisions are intended to tackle disguised employment. Briefly, if a worker contracts through a personal service company (PSC) with an end client, IR35 interposes a hypothetical contract between the contractor and the end client, and asks whether that contract would be one of employment. If the answer is “yes” then the PSC is treated as the contractor’s employer and the payments to the PSC by the end client are taxed accordingly. In this way, specialist tax tribunals have come to deal with questions usually dealt with only by the ET. Continue reading

REUTERS | Reuters

The Shared Parental Leave Regulations 2014 (SI 2014/3050) provide the non-maternal parent or carer (usually, but not always the father) with the right (subject to statutory conditions) to take leave from work to share in a baby’s primary care. A DBEIS press release earlier this year suggested take-up of shared parental leave (SPL) may be as low as 2%. There may be many reasons for this, such as:

  • The longstanding cultural status quo that childcare is the mother’s role.
  • Fear of workplace repercussions.
  • Gender pay gaps rendering the male partner the more likely principal breadwinner.
  • Lack of knowledge of the right.
  • Complexity of the forms.

One possible reason derives from the asymmetry between contractual maternity leave pay provisions and those for SPL.

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Employment tribunal claims dealing with the issue of personal liability are being considered with increasing frequency. Claimants often only consider such claims due to concerns over the possible insolvency or dissolution of a former employer. In this situation the opportunity to pursue a claim against an individual may be the only means to obtain a financial remedy. The EAT decision in Murray v Maclay Murray & Spens LLP UKEATS/0004/18 explores this trend in the context of indirect discrimination claims and provides guidance on the circumstances in which such a claim can be pursued. Continue reading

REUTERS | Shutterstock

It has never been more important for the country to have a strong, confident and effective equalities regulator. A cursory look at social media tells you why. Whether it’s allegations of sexual harassment in Parliament, or of racism at the Football Association, or the gender pay gap at the BBC, discrimination is everywhere. Continue reading

REUTERS | Thomson Reuters

Last month’s revelations about the Presidents Club fundraising dinner, at which female hostesses were reportedly harassed by male guests, has raised questions about the third party harassment provisions under the Equality Act 2010 (EqA 2010). While the relevant provisions were repealed from 1 October 2013, there has been some suggestion that they should be re-enacted. Until Parliament intervenes, what protection is currently available to employees and which steps should employers consider taking? Continue reading

REUTERS | Maxim Shemetov

Employee data and monitoring. The ECtHR has held that a University’s installation of surveillance cameras in student auditoriums violated Article 8 of the ECHR. Privacy must be interpreted broadly, to include the right to lead a private social life, which applied in this case because lecturers not only taught, but interacted with students in the auditoriums.

The High Court has found that an employer can be vicariously liable for the deliberate and criminal disclosure of personal data by an employee. As the first ever data breach class action, the case will have a far-reaching impact on data controllers who may face substantial financial liabilities.

Trade unions. The EAT has held that an employer’s attempt to bypass a recognised trade union by negotiating directly with its employees amounted to an unlawful inducement. The EAT confirmed that even if only one term of employment is determined by direct agreement it will be sufficient to amount to an unlawful inducement. Continue reading